Puneet Chandna MD(h.c.), PhD, FIET, FNCCN, MAHA

Quickly let me summaries the module 1A. We learned about the basic characteristics of the blood as two liquid tissues of the body. One as blood and the other as Lymph (pronounced as limf).
now let us see what blood consist of. Blood consists of solid and a liquid component. The solid portion is made up of cells and the liquid portion is called as the Plasma. Cells make up of total 45% of the blood volume and plasma makes up for the remaining 55% of the volume.
the total blood is also known as whole blood and the whole blood= Blood Cells (45%)+ Plasma (55%) as stated above.

The solid portion or the cells contain 3 different types of Cells:

1. Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) also called as RBCs. these are the cells that have a protein on their surface called as haemoglobin and helps transport the oxygen and carbon dioxide. they are made in bones (Bone Marrow). Look below for the cancer type in blood.

2. White Blood cells (Leukocytes) also called as WBCs.
these white blood cells are of different types and have their functions but mainly help against infections and making antibodies to fight them. when we are short of producing some antibodies we take medicines called as antibiotics that help us fight infections.

3. Thrombocytes also known as clotting cells, cell fragments or platelets. Thrombo means clot and cite means cell hence thrombocytes are cells that help clotting of blood.

PLASMA: In simple words, plasma is a river of liquid in which the cells float. this plasma contains several hundred types of proteins. Plasma contains water and proteins like serum albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen), glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, etc.), hormones, and carbon dioxide.

These rare essential for the body to maintain a good health. we shall discuss them separately when they come up in some details, but not in too much details as i do not want to confuse you.

Serum is a word we all must know. this is nothing but llama minus the clotting proteins. Serum is studied for evidence of infections in the blood and in turn body.

we can again say Serum= Plasma – (clotting proteins).

Cancer and Blood:

Leukaemia is a cancer that Leukaemia affects your white blood cells. These are an important, infection-fighting part of your immune system, made in your bone marrow. If you have leukaemia, you produce an abnormal number of immature white blood cells which ‘clog up’ your bone marrow and stop it making other blood cells vital for a balanced immune system and healthy blood.

its sub types are:
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It’s most common in people over 65, although people of any age can get it.

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). This is the most common type of leukaemia in children.

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). It’s a rare condition.
It’s much more common to get it if you’re over 60 and is very rare in people under 40.

Lymphoma (will discuss later)

Myeloma: Myeloma (also called multiple myeloma) is a blood cancer of the plasma cells. Plasma cells are found in your bone marrow and produce antibodies which help fight infection. In myeloma, unusually large numbers of abnormal plasma cells gather in your bone marrow and stop it producing an important part of your immune system.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS):
The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of blood disorders where a person’s bone marrow is not producing the correct amount and quality of blood cells. Red, white and platelet cells can be affected.

Wish this takes us closer to the end of understanding the blood system. please post any questions you may have for us to later at the end of the week move to Lymphatic System. we shall discuss about the cancer in Lymphatic system later when we cover the lymphatic system (Pronounced as limfatic system)

(See more at: http://www.anthonynolan.org/patients-and-families/blood-cancers-and-blood disorders/what-blood cancer#sthash.W39pNlRW.dpuf)

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