The hypothalamus is a crucial region for integrating signals from central and peripheral pathways and plays a major role in Appetite regulation.
Within the brainstem, the dorsal vagal complex plays a role in the interpretation and relaying of peripheral signals. Gut hormones act peripherally to modulate Digestion and absorption of Nutrients. However, they also act as neurotransmitters within the central Nervous system to control food intake. Peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 and oxyntomodulin suppress appetite, whilst ghrelin increases appetite through afferent vagal fibres to the caudal brainstem or directly to the hypothalamus.