osteopeniaThis post dedicated to Seniors ,from the creators of the medical terms OSTEO stands for relating to Bone(s) and Penia meaning deficiency is in literal terms a deficiency and not a disease. It may eventually lead to Osteoporosis, which can be called a condition to worry about.

Osteoporosis is a common disease that is characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural disruption, and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fragility fracture.

Bone Mineral Density (BMD), testing is used in screening the home health or not too good ,  for osteoporosis screening . Low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with increased risk of fracture, regardless of the technique used for measurement. BMD testing (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) in women 65 years of age and older and in postmenopausal women younger than 65 years of age with clinical risk factors for fracture. However, routine testing in men is not advocated by doctors. BMD in men with clinical manifestations of low bone mass and in those with risk factors for fracture.

A clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis may be made in case there is a fracture, somewhere in the spine, hip, wrist, humerus, rib, and pelvis, without measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). Fragility fractures are those occurring from a fall from a standing height or less, without major trauma such as a motor vehicle accident. Certain skeletal locations, including the skull, cervical spine, hands, feet, and ankles, are not associated with fragility fractures. Stress fractures are also not considered fragility fractures, as they are due to repetitive injury.

Almost half of all people over the age of 60 and practically everyone over the age of 80 has some form of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a natural process whereby cartilage between the joints starts to wear out with age. Injury, excessive weight, bad genes, and smoking accelerate this process. It’s not only your hips that suffer. Other joints such as your knees, hands, feet and your spine can be affected.

In women and men with low bone mass (T-score -2.00 to -2.49) at any site or who have risk factors for ongoing bone loss (eg, glucocorticoid use, hyperparathyroidism), we suggest follow-up measurements (approximately every two years), as long as the risk factor persists.

All postmenopausal women with osteoporosis should receive adequate calcium and vitamin D. Other important lifestyle measures include exercise, smoking cessation, counseling on fall prevention, and avoidance of heavy alcohol use. In addition, affected patients should avoid, if possible, drugs that increase bone loss, such as glucocorticoids.

An optimal diet for treatment (or prevention) of osteoporosis includes an adequate intake of calories (to avoid malnutrition), calcium, and vitamin D.

Postmenopausal women should take adequate supplemental elemental calcium (generally 500 to 1000 mg/day), in divided doses, at mealtime, such that their total calcium intake (diet plus supplements) approximates 1200 mg/day.

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