Generally most vitamins are well tolerated however in some cases supplements such as Calcium may cause constipation and some others neuropathy. Toxic levels of individual vitamins can arrive in people who take….
Toxic levels of individual vitamins can arrive in people who take very high-potency vitamin supplements. The list is exhaustive and these can occur due to many OTC products in specialty stores, over the internet, and even when procured from pharmacies. High doses and related toxicity can occur by taking a large number of pills even if the dose per pill is not high.
Water soluble vitamins such as folate, vitamin C or most B vitamins can generally be tolerated at high doses of consumption, and a likely toxicity may occur only at doses thousands of times the Recommended doses. One can refer too the guidelines by Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) list.
The other class of vitamins called as Fat soluble vitamins include vitamins such as A, D, E, K are generally more toxic than water soluble vitamins. Vitamin D may cause hypercalcemia at doses as low as 4000 units/day (recommended upper limit) in some people. Vitamin A in pregnancy is teratogenic at doses as low as several times the RDA (with an apparent threshold at 10,000 units/day of supplemental vitamin A). Others such as Beta-carotene appears to increase the risk of lung cancer in adults who are otherwise at high risk because of smoking or exposure to asbestos. As discussed above, there are concerns that vitamin E supplementation above 400 units per day may be associated with increased all-cause mortality.
Diets play a very important role in all humans for the requisite amounts of vitamins that we can have from our meals. A balanced diet with fruits and vegetables always promotes health by providing known vitamins, but also because it contains fiber and thousands of other less well-defined micronutrients and replaces meat and animal fat. However, people on restricted or special diets may have additional needs for vitamin supplementation and should be done with care or ideally under consultation or medical supervision especially when you suffer from chronic disorders.
Some special diets include a list of names or regimens such as:
●Semi-vegetarian – Meat occasionally is included in the diet. Some people who follow such a diet may not eat red meat but may eat fish and perhaps chicken.
●Lacto-ovo vegetarian – Eggs, milk, and milk products (lacto = dairy; ovo = eggs) are included, but no meat is consumed.
●Lacto-vegetarian – Milk and milk products are included in the diet, but no eggs or meat are consumed.
●Macrobiotic – Whole grains, especially brown rice, are emphasized and vegetables, fruits, legumes, and seaweeds are included in the diet. Locally grown fruits are encouraged. Animal foods limited to white meat or fish may be included in the diet once or twice a week.
●Vegan – All animal products, including eggs, milk, and milk products, are excluded from the diet. Some vegans do not use honey and may refrain from using animal products such as leather or wool. They also may avoid foods that are processed or not organically grown.
for more information enthusiasts, The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical practice guideline provides several recommendations for vitamin supplementation and can be accessed through the website for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality at Clinical Guidelines and Recommendations.
Genetic factors may affect how vitamins are metabolized and the consequences of supplementation in various clinical situations and doses. Not enough is yet known to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions about vitamin dose and deficiencies, but that information is likely to become available.