Cancer is believed to be a molecular disease that occurs By Chance, Due to Environment and Genetics. Most patients post their evaluation through procedures of imaging and biopsy are placed into one of four categories and are guide further evaluation and therapy:
●Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
●Neuroendocrine carcinoma, which may be either well differentiated or poorly differentiated
●Poorly differentiated tumors, most of which are recognized as carcinomas by histologic examination. Less frequently, the lineage (carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, melanoma, germ cell tumor) is unclear after light microscopic examination.
The pace of discovery in the fields of immunology and cancer biology has accelerating on the foundation laid decades ago by clinicians and scientists. In current times, the role of the immune system in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis evolves, continued progress is likely in the treatment of malignancy.
Novel precision/molecularly targeted cancer therapy is now available in most countries across the globe. Some metastatic/surgically incurable parathyroid cancers can carry tumor-specific mutations against which new targeted therapeutic agents may already already exist. Patients can benefit from these and pharmaceutical companies to target such potential target to soon produce chemical agents that target these genetic variants in specific.
For a tumour such therapeutic interventions are valuable, and most importantly, its hold promise to prospective applications of “precision medicine”. Clinical trials of new targeted agents, in which eligibility is based on the presence of a particular driver mutation without regard to the tissue/histologic origin of the tumor, are being seriously considered when clinically appropriate.
The roles of diet, physical activity, and body weight in cancer survivorship. Diet, physical activity, and weight are collectively considered energy balance factors because they describe the relationship between energy consumed (diet), energy expended (physical activity), and energy stored (adiposity). They have each been linked to cancer outcomes, particularly in survivors of breast, colon, rectum, endometrial, and prostate cancer. A positive energy balance results from excess of energy intake relative to the energy expended, which results in increases in the storage of energy and weight gain.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) have developed nutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors based on the available evidence linking diet, weight, and physical activity to cancer outcomes. In addition, while The American Society of Clinical Oncology advocates secondary prevention including maintenance of healthy body weight and adoption of an active lifestyle specifically for colorectal cancer survivors, these guidelines should be considered universally by all survivors.
Hence a more integrated approach at, before, during and after initial therapy has taken ground as the most comprehensive strategy in the era of Evidence Based, Precision and Functional Medicine that will drive the futuristic role in Cancer Management.